The History of Lapland

Written by John Scheffer
Oxford 1674

Of the magicall Ceremonies of the Laplanders.

It hath bin a received opinion among all that did but know the name of the Laplanders, that they are People addicted to Magic, wherefore I thought fit to discourse next of this, as being one of the greatest of their impieties that yet continues among them. And that this opinion may seem to be grounded upon some authority, they are described both by ancient and modern Writers, to have arrived to so great skill in enchantments, that among several strange effects of their art, they could stop ships when under full sail. This judgement of the Historians concerning the Laplanders is no less verified also of the Biarmi their predecessours. So that we may justly suppose both of them to have descended from the same original: for the Biarmi were so expert in these arts that they could either by their looks, words, or some other wicked artifice, so ensnare and bewitch men, as to deprive them of the use of limbs and reason, and very often bring them into extreme danger of their lives. But tho in these latter times they do not frequently practise this, and dare not profess it so publicly as before, being severely prohibited by the King of Sweden: yet there are still many that give themselves wholly unto this study. But if we enquire into the motives and reasons hereof, this, formerly mention’d, seens the principal, that every one thinks it the surest way to defend himself from the injuries and malicious designs of others: for they commonly profess that their knowledge in these things is absolutely necessary for their own security. Upon which account they have Teachers and Professors in this science: and parents in their last will bequeath to their children, as the greatest part of their estate, those spirits and devils that have bin any waies serviceable to them in their life time. Sturlesonius writes of Gunilda, a maid, that was sent by her father Odzor Huide, who dwelt in Halogaland, to Motle King of Finlapland in Norway, to be instructed in this art. Where he gives an account also of two other Finlanders, and the great knowledg they attained to in this profession. But it is very seldom that the parents themselves are not so learned, as to perform the duty, and save the expences of a tutor. Thus they become famous in these studies, especially when they happen to be apt Schollars. For as the Laplanders do not all agree in the same disposition, so neither do they arrive to the same perfection in this art. For some are so stupid and dull, that however they may seem qualified for other emploiments, they prove altogether unfit for this.

As to the bequeathing their familiars to their Children, they suppose it the only means to raise their family; so that they excell one another in this art, according to the largeness of the legacies they receive. From hence it is manifest, that each house hath peculiar spirits, and of different and quite contrary natures from those of others. And not only each distinct family, but single persons in them also have their particular spirits, sometimes one, two, or more, according as they intend to stand on the defensive part, or are maliciosly inclined and design to be upon the offensive: so that there are a set number of obsequious spirits, beyond which none hath. But however some of these will not engage themselves without great solicitation, and earnest entreaties, when others more readily profer themselves to little children, when they find them fit for their turn, so that diverse of the Inhabitants are almost naturally Magicians. For when the devil takes a liking to any person in his infancy, as a fit instrument for his designs, he presently seases on him by a disease, in which he haunts them with several apparitions, from whence according to the capacity of his years and understanding he learns what belongs to the art. Those which are taken thus a second time see more visions, and gain greater knowledg. If they are seased a third time, which is seldom without great torment, or utmost danger of their life, the devil appears to them in all his shapes, by which they arrive to the very perfection of this art; and become so knowing, that without the Drum they can see things at greatest distances, and are so possessed by the devil, that they see them even against their will. For example, not long since a certain Lap, who is yet alive, upon my complaint against him for his Drum, brought it to me; and confest with tears, that tho he should part with it, and not make him another, he should have the same visions he had formerly: and he instanc’t in my self, giving me a true and particular relation of whatever had happened to me in my journy to Lapland. And he farther complained, that he knew not how to make use of his eies, since things altogether distant were presented to them.

As for the art, it is, according to the diversity of the instruments they make use of in it, divided into two parts: one comprehends all that to which their Drum belongs, the other those things to which knots, darts, spells, conjurations, and the like refer. First concerning the drum, as being peculiar to the Laplanders; and called by them Kannus, or Quobdas; it is made out of a hollow piece of wood, and must either be of pine, fir, or birch tree, which grows in such a particular place, and turns directly according to the Suns course; which is, when the grain of the wood, running from the bottom to the top of the tree, winds it self from the right hand to the left. From this perhaps they believe this tree very acceptable to the Sun, which under the image of Thor they worship with all imaginable devotion. The piece of wood they make of it, must be of the root cleft asunder, and made hollow on one side, upon which they stretch a skin: the other side, being convex, is the lower part, in which they make two holes, where they put their fingers to hold it. The shape of the upper side is oval, in diameter almost half an ell, very often not so much; it is like a kettle drum, but not altogether so round, nor so hollow; neither is the skin fastened with little iron screwes, but wooden pegs. I have seen some sowed with sinews of Rain-dears. Olaus termed the drum very improperly an anvil, tho I believe he only meant by this a drum, as will appear hereafter. This perhaps made the Engraver mistake, who made a Smith’s anvil for it, placing a Serpent and a frog upon it, with a Smith’s hammer by. The Laplanders use only a drum, which perhaps because they beat it with a hammer, was called by Olaus called an anvil. They paint upon the skin several pictures in red, stained with the bark of an Alder tree. They draw near the middle of the drum several lines quite cross, upon these they place those Gods, to whom they pay the greatest worship, as Thor the chief God, with his attendance, and Storjunkar with his: these are drawn on top of the line; after this they draw another line parallel to the former, only half cross the drum, on this stands the image of Christ with some of his Apostles. Whatever is drawn above these two lines represents birds, Stars, and the Moon; below these they place the Sun, as middlemost of the Planets, in the very middle of the drum, upon which they put a bunch of brazen rings when they beat it. Below the Sun they paint the terrestrial things, and living creatures; as Bears, Wolves, Rain-dears, Otters, Foxes, Serpents: as also Marshes, Lakes, Rivers, &c. This is the description of the drum according to Sam. Rheen, of which this is the picture.

Two drums, A and B, with hammers and rings

The Explication of the Figures.

In the Drum A. a markes Thor. b Thors Servant. c Storjunkare. d his Servant. e Birds. f Stars. g Christ. h his Apostles. i a Bear. k a Wolf. l a Rain-deer. m an Ox. n the Sun. o a Lake. p a Fox. q a Squeril. r a Serpent.

In the Drum B. a denotes God the Father. b Jesus Christ. c the Holy Ghost. d S. John. e Death. f a Goat. g a Squeril. h Heaven. i the Sun. l a Wolf. m the fish Siik. n a Cock. o Friendship with the Rain-deer. p Anundus Eerici (whose Drum this was) killing a Wolf. q Gifts. r an Otter. ſ the friendship of other Lapps. t a Swan. u a sign to try the condition of others, and whether a disease be incurable. x a Bear. y a Hog. β a Fish. γ one carrying a Soul to Hell.

I have observed that severall of their drums have not the same pictures upon them, I have three very different; one, which is here set down, marked by the letter B. They are described differently by Tornæus, in wch the figures are distinguished so as to refer to several places, of which there are chiefly three. In the first stands Norland, and other Countries of Sweden, which are placed on the South side of the drum, and are separated by a line from the rest; in this also is contained the next great city, where they trafic most; as in the drums made at Torne, or Kiemi, there is drawn the City Torne, with the Temple, Priest, and Governour of the Laplanders, and many others with whom they have any concerns: as also the highway that lies betwixt them and Torne, by which they discover when their Priest, or Governour will come; besides other affairs managed in those parts. On the North part, Norway is described with all that is contained in it. In the middle of these two stands Lapland, this takes up the greatest part of the drum: in it are the several sorts of beasts that are in the Countrey, here they picture herds of Rain-dears, Bears, Foxes, Wolves, and all manner of wild beasts, to signifie when, and in what place they may find them. If a tame Rain-dear be lost, how they may get him againe. Whether the Rain-dears young ones will live. Whether their net fishing will be successfull. If sick men will recover, or not. Whether women great with child shall have a safe delivery. Or such, or such a man will die of such a distemper, or by what other; and other things of the like nature which they are desirous to know. I cannot give an account of the reason for this difference in the drums, unless it is that some of them are made for more malicious designs, other again for each man’s private purpose. Upon this account I believe, according to the nature of the business they intend, they add, and blot out, and sometimes wholly change the figures. But that you may better understand the diversity of the drums, here are two represented to you, both which I had out of the Study of the Chancellour of the Kingdom.

Two drums, C and D

The Explication of the Figures.

In the Drum D. a denotes Birds. b black Foxes. c Tinur, a God. d Thor, a God. e Thors hammer. f Storjunkare. g a wooden Idol. h his Servant. i a Star. k an Ox. l a Goat. m a Star. n the Moon. o the Sun. p a Star. q another Star. r a Wolf.

The two greater Figures represent, one the upper, the other the lower side of the Drum, and so do also the two lesser.

Besides these two drums, I had also a third given me by the same Lord of as great a size as any that can be usually met with.

A Kemi Sámi drum, E

To these I add a fourth, given me by the Illustrious Baron Lieutenant Henry Flemming, mark’t with the letter F.

A second Kemi Sámi drum, F

Now there are two things required to fit the drum for use, an Index and a Hammer, that shews among the pictures the thing they enquire after, with this they beat the drum. The Index is the bunch of brazen rings mentioned before. They first place one great ring upon the drum, then they hang severall small ones upon that; the shape of the Index’s is very different, for of these I have one made of copper, of the bigness of a Dollar, with a square hole in the middle, several small chains hanging about it instead of rings. Another hath an Alchymy ring, on which a small round plate of copper is hung by little chains. I have seen another also of bone, in the shape of the Greek Δ, with rings about it; and others of a quite different make. I have described mine under the drums A, and B, by the mark G; but the common sort of rings are of copper, and those upon the Chancellors drums are altogether such. Some Writers call these rings serpents, or brazen frogs, and toads; not that they resemble them, but because by them they signifie these creatures, whose pictures they often use in their conjuring, as supposing them very grateful and acceptable to the Devil. The Laplanders call the Index Arpa, or Quobdas; and make it indifferently of any sort of metal. The hammer they use in raising their familiars, is not the Smith’s; which was the errour of him that drew it in Olaus Magn. but is an instrument belonging only to the Laplanders, and called by a peculiar name by them: it is made of a Rain-deers horn, branching like a fork, this is the head of the hammer, the other part serves for the handle. The instrument is placed under the two drums A. B. with the letter H, with the hammer they beat the drum, not so much to make a noise, as by the drumming to move the ring lying on the skin, so as to pass over the pictures, and shew what they sought after. This is the description of the drum, with all its necessaries as it is used by the Laplanders that are subject to the Swedes; the Finlappers also that are under the Crown of Danemarke, make use of drums something different in fashion from the former; yet however the difference is so small, that I believe their drums are not of a different kind from ours, but made only for some particular uses. I shall give an account of one of those, described in Wormius’s Study, who saies that the Laplanders drum, which they use in their magic, and by beating which they discover those things they desired, is made of an oval piece of wood hollowed, in length a foot, in breadth ten inches; in this they make six holes, and put a handle to it, that they may hold in the left hand, whilst they beat it with the other; upon it they stretch over a skin, painted with diverse rude figures, drawn with blood, or red; upon this lies a piece of brass, in the shape of a Rhomboides, somewhat convexe, about two inches in diameter, in the middle of this and at each corner hangs a small chain. The instrument, with which they beat the drum, is of bone, six inches long, about the thickness of a little finger, and made much like the Latine T.

This instrument the Laplanders use for diverse designs, and are of opinion that whatever they do it is don by the help of this. For this reason they have it in great esteem and reverence, taking such care in securing it, that they wrap it with the Index, and hammer, up in a Lambskin, and and for its greater safety, lay it in some private place. But I think it an errour, to suppose them to lay it in a Lambskin: for it is written in some places Loomskin, which signifies the skin of a bird that lives altogether in the water. They think it so sacred, and holy, that they suffer no maid that is marriageable to touch it; and if they remove it from place to place, they carry it the last of all, and this must be don too only by men; or else they go with it thro some untrod way, that no body may either meet or follow them. The reason they give for their great care in this particular, is, because they believe if any one, especially a maid that is marriageable, should follow the same way, they would in three daies time at least fall into some desperate disease, and commonly without hopes of recovery. This they seem to verifie by many examples, that we may give the more credit to it; and we have the less reason to doubt the truth of this, since the devil severely commands his worship to be observed, and suffers not those rites and customs he hath imposed to be violated, so long as God is pleased to grant him this liberty. Now because it may happen sometimes that a woman may out of necessity be constrained to go that way, by which the drum hath bin carried, the devil is so favorable as to permit it without any danger, upon the condition she first offers a brazen ring to the drum.

The underside of a Kemi Sämi drum

In the next place, because they believe they can effect very strange things by the drum, we will shew what they are, and the manner used to perform them. These are three, belonging either to their hunting, their sacred affairs, or lastly the enquiring into things far distant. I find four chiefly mentioned by another Writer, the first is, the knowing the state of affairs in forreign Countries. The second, what success their designs in hand will meet. With the third, how to cure diseases. The fourth, what Sacrifices their Gods will be pleased to accept, and what beast each God desires or dislikes most. As to the way in making enquiries, it is not the same among all these artists. But the great thing they generally observe, is, to stretch the skin very stiff, which is don by holding it to the fire. The next is, that they beat not altogether in the same place, but round about the Index; then that they beat softly at first, presently quicker, and continue this till they have effected their intent. The drummer first lifts up the drum by degrees, then beats softly about the Index, till it begins to stirr, and when it is removed some distance from its first place to either side, he strikes harder, till the Index points at something, from whence he may collect what he sought for. They take care also that as well he that beats the drum, as those that are present at the ceremony, should be upon their knees. As to the occasions of their beating thus, the later of those is already discoursed of. Now we proceed to the rest, the first of which is concerning their enquiries into things acted in remote parts. Those who desire to know the condition of their friends, or affairs abroad, whether distant five hundred, or a thousand miles, go to some Laplander, or Finlander skilfull in this art, and present him with a linen garment, or piece of silver, as his reward, for satisfying them in their demands. An example of this nature is to be seen upon record, at Bergen, a famous Market Town in Norway, where the effects of the German Merchants are registred; in this place there was one John Delling, Factor then to a German, to whom a certain Finlapper of Norway came with James Samaousuend: of him John Delling enquired about his Master then in Germany; the Finlapper readily consenting to tell him, like a drunken man presently made a great bawling, then reeling and dancing about several times in a circle, fell at last upon the ground, lying there sometime as if he were dead, then starting up on a suddain, related to him all things concerning his Master, which were afterwards found to agree to what he reported. There are many more instances of this kind: the most considerable, is one concerning a Laplander, now living, who gave Tornæus an account of the Journey he first made to Lapland, tho he had never seen him before that time; which, altho it was true, Tornæus dissembled to him, least he might glory too much in his devilish practises, and rely upon them, as the only means whereby he might attain to truth. The authority of this man is so considerable, that it may gain credit enough to the Story. As to the method taken in making discoveries, it is very different. Olaus Magn. describes it thus, the drummer goes into some private room, accompanied by one single person, besides his wife, and by beating the drum moves the Index about, muttering at the same time several charms, then presently he falls into an extasie, and lies for a short time as if dead; in the mean while his companion takes great care, that no gnat, flie, or other living creature touch him; for his Soul is carried by some ill Genius into a forreign Countrey, from whence it is brought back with a knife, ring, or some other token, of his knowledg, of what is done in those parts; after this rising up, he relates all the circumstances belonging to the business that was enquired after; and that they may seem certainly so, he shews what he hath brought from thence. Petr. Claud. makes no mention either of the drum, charms, company, or those things he brings with him; but saies he casts himself upon the ground, grows black in the face, lying as if dead for an hour or two; according as the distance of the place is, of which he makes enquiry; when he awakes he gives a full account of all affairs there. It is clear from what is said before, that they made use of a drum; and ’tis observed that for this sort of conjuring the lower part of the drum, whereby they hold it was commonly shaped like a cross. One of this make was given me by the Lord Henry Flemming, Colonel of a foot Regiment in Finland, the Figure of it is in the page foregoing. They hang about it several claws, and bones of the creatures they take. That several persons also, as well men as women, are permitted to be present at this ceremony, is asserted by Sam. Rheen in his history, where he saies that the drummer sings a song, called by them Joiike, and the men and women that are present sing likewise, some in higher some in lower notes, this they call Duura. Next as to the casting themselves on the ground, there are various relations, some think them not really, but only in appearance dead; others are apt to believe that the soul departs from the body, and after its travell abroad, returns again. But without doubt this is false, for it is impossible, for either man, or devil, to restore the soul to the body it hath once left. So that I believe the Devil only stifles the faculties of the soul for a time, and hinders their operations. Now after the drummer falls down, he laies his drum as near as possiby on his head, in this posture.

A drum in use

Those in the mean time that are present, leave not off singing all the time he lies sweating in this agony; which they do not only to put him in mind, when he awakes, of the business he was to know; but also that he recover out of this trance, which he would never do, (as they imagine) if they either ceased singing, or any one stirred him with their hand or foot. This perhaps is the reason why they suffer no flie, or any living creature to touch him; and it is upon this account only that they watch him so diligently, and not out of any fear they have least the devil should take away his body; which opinion of Peucers is altogether false. It is uncertain how long they lye in this manner, but it is commonly according as the place where they make their discovery, is nearer or farther off; but the time never exceeds 24 houres, let the place be at never so great a distance. After he awakes he shews them some tokens to confirm their belief in what he tells them. This is the first and chiefest use they make of the drum.

The next is, how to know the event of their own concerns, and what success their hunting will have, or any other business which they undertake, for they seldom venture on any thing, without first consulting that. In order to the knowing this, they place the bunch of rings on the picture of the Sun in the drum; then they beat, singing at the same time; if the rings go round towards the right hand, according to the Suns course they promise to themselves good health, fortune, and great encrease both of men and beasts; if contrary, towards the left, they expect sickness and all the evils attending on ill success. We may easily ground this opinion of theirs upon the other mentioned above, where they believe the Sun the only Author of all productions. Wherefore when the Index moves according to his motion, it portends prosperity by following his course, from whom they expect all the good they receive. This is the way they take in all their more weighty affairs, as in a journey, hunting, removing their habitations, or any such like thing, of which something before, and more hereafter. Before they hunt they make particular observations which way the Index turns, whether East, West, North or South; and collect from thence where their game lies. Other things for which the drum is serviceable, are, first, the discovering the nature of diseases, whether they arise from any disorder in the body, or are caused by magic; this being known, then to find the remedy for them, which is commonly by sacrifice to one or other of their angry Gods, but chiefly to Storjunkar, who bears greatest authority among them, and if not appeased, leaves them small hopes of recovery. Wherefor the sick person vows a sacrifice, either of a Rain-deer, Bull, Goat, or Ram, or something of this kind to one of the Storiunkars, that stands upon the mountains. The sacrifice is not left to the disposal of the sick man, but must be made according to the directions of the drummer; for he is supposed to be the only man able to advise them in this case, he first discovers which of the Gods is displeased, and what sort of sacrifice is most acceptable to him, for they refuse several, and the same also at several times. But before the drummer appeases their Gods, they give him a copper and a silver ring, putting them on his right arm, then he begins a song, and beats the drum, and all that are present joyn with him in a Chorus; after this according to the place, to which the Index points, he directs them. These are the things commonly done by the drum. The last thing for which they think it necessary, is, the accomplishing their wicked designs, as impairing mens health, or depriving them of their lives; which is frequently enough practised among them, tho not altogether so publicly as heretofore. Some of them account this only unlawful, and exclude themselves out of the number of those, which use it, thinking the other uses of the drum to consist chiefly in doing good. But however this mischievous Art continues still too much among them. Several inhabitants of Kiema in Lapland were apprehended in the year 1671, with drums, for this purpose so large, that they could not be removed from thence, but were burnt in the place. Among those Laplanders there was one four score years of age, that confessed he was bred up in this art from his childhood, who in 1670 upon some quarrell about a pair of mittens, caused a Boar of Kiema to be drowned in a Cataract, for which he was condemned to die, and in order to that was to be carried in chains to the next town in Bothnia, but in the journy he contrived so by his art, that on a suddain, tho he seemed well, and lusty, he died on the sledge, which he had often foretold he would sooner do, then fall into the Executioners hands. As to the ceremonies used in this particular, either in their words, gesture, or any other thing, I can give no account, finding none in those writings, from whence I collected the rest. The reason for this, I suppose, is, because they themselves keep this secret, as the great mystery in their art; or that no one would enquire into them, least they should be thought guilty of this damnable sin.

Having treated largely of the drum, we come to the other parts of this art, to which also belong proper sorts of instruments: the first is a cord tied with knots for the raising of wind. They, as Zeiglers relates it, tye three magical knots in this cord; when they untie the first, there blows a favorable gale of wind; when the second, a brisket; when the third, the Sea and wind grow mighty stormy, and tempestous. This, that we have reported concerning the Laplanders, is by Olaus Magnus, and justly, related of the Finlanders, who border on the Sea, and sell winds to those Merchants that trafic with them, when they are at any time detained by a contrary one. The manner is thus, they deliver a small rope with three knots upon it, with this caution, that when they loose the first, they shall have a good wind, if the second, a stronger, if the third, such a storm will arise, that they can neither see how to direct the ship, and avoid rocks, or so much as stand upon the decks, or handle the tackling. No other Writers mention this concerning the Laplanders, and I am apt not to think it at all probable, since they live in an inland Country, bordering no where upon the Sea. Wherefore this properly belong to the Finlappers in Norway. Now those that are skilled in this art, have command chiefly over the winds that blew at their birth; so that this wind obeys principally one man, that another, as if they obtained this power when they first received their breath; now as this belongs chiefly to the Finlappers and Finlanders of Norway, so doth the stopping of the course of ships, which is altogether of the same nature. This is also attributed to the Laplanders, who according to the different affection they have for Merchants, make the Sea either calmer, or more tempestous.

We come now to their magical Darts, which they make of lead, in length about a finger; by these they execute their revenge upon their enemies, and according to the greatness of the injury received, they wound them with cankrous swellings, either in the arms, or legs, which by the extremity of its pain, kills them in three daies time. They shoot these darts to what distance they please, and that so right too, that they seldom miss their aim. Olaus Magnus reports the same in his writings, which I believe is only a transcript of Zeigler’s, the words being the same, and without doubt he follows him in this particular as he hath in many others. But I suppose they are both mistaken, and misrender’d them leaden darts, since I can find no person in these times that knows of any such; neither is there any mention made of them in any other writers, or by the common People, who seldom omit such circumstances as these in their relations. But they might perhaps be mistaken in supposing them to be made of lead; by misunderstanding the word Skott, which is commonly used for their explanation. For when either man or beast is suddainly taken with a disease, by which their strength fails, and they immediately perish; the common People calls this that takes them so Skott, that is a dart. This might make Zeigler think to be really some dart, which the inhabitants are wholly ignorant of, and most among us believe these things to be effected by some other means. Petrus Claudius calls it a Gan, which they send abroad: he likens it to a flie, but saies it is some little devil, of which the Finlanders in Norway that excell most in this art, keep great numbers in a leathern bag, and dispatch daily some of them abroad. Of these he relates a story, that happened in his time: an Inhabitant of Helieland, who is still alive, going towards the mountains in Norway to hunt Bears, came to a cave under the side of a hill, where he found an image rudely shapen, which was the Idoll of some Finlander; near this stood a Ganeska, or magical satchel: he opened this, and found in it several blewish flies crawling about, which they call Gans, or spirits, and are daily sent out by the Finlanders to execute their devilish designs. But he seems to intimate no more by this word Gan, then that very thing which endangers mens health, and lives. For he saies that these Finlanders cannot live peaceably, except they let out of their Ganeska or Gankiid, which is the satchel, every day one of the Gans, that is a fly or devil. But if the Gan can find no man to destroy, after they have sent him out, which they seldom do upon no account at all, then he roves about at a venture, and destroies the first thing he meets with; sometimes they command it out to the mountains, to cleave rocks asunder: however these conjurers will, for very trivial causes, send out their Gan to ruine men. This word Gan signifies no more then what Zeigler meant by his dart, for the term by which they express its going out is de skiuda deris Gan, that is, he as it were shoots out his Gan like an arrow, for Skiuda is only proper to the shooting out of an arrow.

This is the third thing belonging to their magic, which they use as well against one another as strangers; nay sometimes against those that they know are their equals in the art. Of this kind there happened a notable passage betwixt two Finlanders, one of which was called Asbioern Gankonge, from his great knowledge in the art, the other upon some small difference concerning their skill, or some such trifle, would have destroyed Asbioern, but was still prevented by his too powerfull art, till at last finding an opportunity, as Asbioern lay sleeping under a rock, he immediately dispatcht away a Gan, that cleft the rock asunder, and tumbled it upon him. This happened in the time of Petrus Claud. not long before he wrote his History. Some of the Conjurers are contented only with the power to expell that Gan out of men, or beasts, which others send. This is remarkable among them, that they can hurt no man with their Gan, except they first know his parents name.

Now all that the Finlanders and Finlappers of Norway effect by their Gan, the Laplanders do by a thing they call Tyre. This Tyre is a round ball, about the bigness of a wallnut, or a small apple, made of the finest hair of a beast, or else of moss, very smooth, and so light that is seems hollow, its colour is a mixture of yellow, green and ash, but so that the yellow may appear most. I had one of these given me by Mr John Otto Silverstroem, Warden of the Colledge belonging to the metals, and Master of the Mines at Saltzburg and Frahlune. This is the figure of it.


This Tyre they say is quickened and moved by a particular art? it is sold by the Laplanders, so that he that buies it may hurt whom he pleases with it. They do perswade themselves, and others, that by the Tyre they can send, either Serpents, Toads, Mice, or what they please into any man, to make his torment the greater. It goes like a whirlewind, and as swift as an arrow, and destroies the first man, or beast, that it lights on, so that it often mistakes. Of these we have too many instances in this time, which are too long to insert here: having therefore done with all, or at least the chiefest matters concerning their sacred, and superstitious rites, or worship; we proceed to other affairs.