The History of Lapland

Written by John Scheffer
Oxford 1674

The focus of the map is on the Swedish-Finnish Lappmark regions and their relation to the surrounding area. The red colour on region borders and names is added by me for clarity.

There are a number of errors in the names on the map. Some of them, like Torrelapmark for Tornelapmark, Criania for Cajania and Jorengi for Joxengi was already present in the Latin original. Others are due to carelessness in the interpretation of it, like the original’s Iukas T. (representing Jukas Trask) being misread as Lucaſt. Two changes are more deliberate: Finmarchia seu Finlappia is replaced by Finlapland and the garbled Latin description of Trinnis is rather freely translated, correcting several egregious errors.

In addition, there are some omissions. Three names present on the Latin map is lacking on the English version, and on some towns, the circle is missing on the latter. Conversely, there are two such icons present on both maps without names. The region to the southeast of Kemi Lappmark is unnamed on both maps. In the table below, the form used in the main text, Carelia, is inserted for completeness.

Feature Latin original English version Normalised form
Region noruagia norway Norway
Mountain range Montes Fiellici Noruagiam a Suecia diuitentes The Fells or hills dividing Swedland from Norway
Region finmarchia seu finlappia olim skridfinnia dicta. finlapland heretofore called skridfinnia Finnmark
Town Kautakeni Kautekeni Kautokeino
Town Sondoweira Sondoweira Suondavara
Town Tuno Tuno Teno (Tenoby, Tenokylä)
Town Vtzyoky Vtziocky Utsjoki
Promontory Noort Caep North Cape North Cape
Town Waranger Waranger Varanger
Fortress Wardhuys Ward-houſe Vardøhus
Town Enaraby Enaraby Enare by
Lake Enare Traſk Enare Traſk Enare träsk
Region trinnis trinnis Trennes
Lapponia Duci Magno Moſchouitarum ſudjeita quam teres biarmirm vocajse videntor. The Lapland Subject to the Muſcovite called by the Ancients biarmia
Town Suenekele Suenekele Suonikylä
Town Kola Kola Kola
Lake Kolajenvi Kolajenvi Kolajärvi / Nuortijärvi
Sea album mare the white sea The White Sea
Region [Carelia] [Carelia] Karelia
Sea Sinus Bothnicus the bothnie bay The Bothnian Bay
Region Iemptia iemptia Jämtland
Region Angermania angermania Ångermanland
Town Åſala Åſala Åsele
Region Umalapmark vmalappmark Ume Lappmark
Town Granby Granby Granby
Town Lykſala Lykſala Lycksele
Town Laiſby Laiſby Laisby
River Vindela fl. Vindelaſt Vindel River
Town Uma Uma Umeå
River Bura elf Bura elf Bure älv
Region Pitalapmark pitalapmark Pite lappmark
Town Silbujochk Silbujochk Silbojokk
Town Arieplog Arieplog Arjeplog
Town Lochtoreby Lochtoreby Luokte by
Lake or Town Storarwitz Storarwita Storavan or Arvidsjaur
Town Gratræſk Gratreſk Gråträsk
Town Pitha Pitha Piteå
Region Lula Lapmark lvlalapmark Lule lappmark
Lake Forſtraſk Froſtraſk Forsträsk
Town Torpenjaur Torpejaur Torpenjaur
Lake Storlulstreſk Stora Luleträsk
Town Zirkiſlocht Zirkiſlocht Sirkasluokta
River ſtorlulea Storlulea Storluleå
Town Jochmoch Jochmoch Jokkmokk
Town Sochſjoch Sochſjoch Sokkjokk
Town Lula Lula Luleå
Region Torre Lapmark Torre Lapmark Torne lappmark
Lake Tornetraſk Tornetraſk Torneträsk
Town Tengwara Tengwara Tingevara
Lake or Town Witzungi Vittangi
Town Siggewar Siggewar Siggevara
Lake Iukas T. Lucaſt Jukkasträsk / Jukkasjärvi
Town Swappauer Swappauer Svappavaara
Town ?
Town Junaſwando Junaſwando Junosuando
River Torno fl. Torno flu. Torne älv
River Ofwerkalo Ofwerkalo Överkalix
Town Tarande Tarande Tärendö
Town Pajala Pajala Pajala
Town Kangis Kangis Kengis
Lake Sieppe T. Sieppet Sieppiträsk / Sieppijarvi
Town Lappia tors Lappia tors Lappia fors / Lappeakoski
Town Jorengi Jornegi Juoksengi
Town Oter Torne Oter Torne Övertorneå
Town or River Tangelo Tangelo Tengeliö
Town Torne Torne Torneå
Town Pællejerf Pellejerf Pallasjärvi
River Aunes fl. Aunes flu. Ounasjoki
Town Kittillaby Kittillaby Kittilä
Town ?
Town Sodankyle Sodankyle Sodankylä
Region Kiemi-Lappmarck Kimi Lapmark Kemi Lappmark
Town Somby Somby Sombio by
Town Kiemi kyle Kiemi Kyle Kemikylä
Town Koulajerf Koulajerf Kuolajärvi
Town Kiedkojerf Krekojerf Kitkajärvi
Town Manſialkaby Manſialkaby Maanselkä by
Town Kimi Kimi Kemi
River Kimi fl. Kemi River
Region criania criania Cajania
Town Lappajervi Lappajervi Lappajärvi
Town Cajanaborg Cajanaborg Kajanaborg
Lake Vla Treſk Vla Trſk Ula Träsk
Fortress Vlaborg Vlaborg Uleåborg
Town Oulo Oulo Oulu
Town Limigo Limigo Liminka
Town Lochti Lochti Lochteå
Town Carlbÿ Carlby Karleby
Town Nikarlabÿ Nikarlaby Nykarleby
Region tavastia tavastia Tavastia